MedMij FHIR Implementation Guide GP Patient Data
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Actors involved
- 3 Boundaries and Relationships
- 4 List of invocations
- 5 Interactions, operations, search parameters
- 6 List of StructureDefinitions
- 7 Terminology, NamingSystems, Mappings
- 8 Release notes
The input document "Richtlijn online inzage in het H-EPD door patiënt" (Dutch) described online access of GP data by patients. The use case evolves around a GP specific Patient Data that consists of 10 sections plus the patient and the healthcare provider (GP). These sections correspond to the "HIS referentiemodel Publieksversie 2016" (Dutch). HIS referentiemodel is the GP information system reference model (GP-IS-RM).
Some but not all sections in the GP Patient Data correspond to Health and Care Information Models (HCIMs (English) or zibs (Dutch)). A joint initiative project between Nictiz and the Dutch GP association NHG is underway to analyse the relationship between the GP-IS-RM and the HCIMs and propose updates where needed. This analysis will not yield results before 2019. This specification thus predates the analysis, and will updated accordingly moving forward.
This page will elaborate further on the HL7 FHIR details needed to exchange the GP Patient Data information using FHIR.
2 Actors involved
|Persons||Systems||FHIR Capability Statements|
|Patient||The user of a personal healthcare enviorment.||PHR||Personal health record||CapabilityStatement: Client||GP Patient Data client requirements|
|Healthcare professional||The user of a XIS||XIS||Healthcare information system||CapabilityStatement: Server||GP Patient Data server requirements|
3 Boundaries and Relationships
The GP Patient Data use case has similarities and differences with other use cases such as the BgZ, Medication Process, Vital Signs and Lab Results. These use cases use much of the same HCIM based FHIR profiles for exchanging information. Wherever possible every attempt is made to re-use the profiles as used in the BgZ. The GP Patient Data also has a few unique profiles compared to the aforementioned use cases. A second thing to note is that while the selection criteria of certain sections like lab do not match, this does not affect the response profiles. For example it is irrelevant for the response profile lab if you request the 'latest lab result' or 'every result since date X'.
4 List of invocations
This FHIR implementation guide assumes that the PHR system is able to make a connection to the XIS that contains the GP Patient Data information. It does not provide information on finding the right XIS nor does it provide information about security. These infrastructure and interface specifications are described in the 'Afsprakenstelsel'.
4.1 Client - PHR
The PHR system can request the GP Patient Data using individual search interactions. The search interaction searches the current resources based on some filter criteria. The interaction can be performed by an HTTP GET or command as shown:
The table below shows in the first four columns the GP Patient Data sections, the GP-IS-RM sections / HCIMs that constitute those sections and the specific content of the GP Patient Data. The last column shows the FHIR search queries to obtain the GP Patient Data information. These queries are based on StructureDefinitions listed in this section. As noted in the introduction, the associated HCIMs are ahead of a separate joint initiative project that aims to analyse and harmonize this further.
Each query is performed in the context of a specific authenticated patient, for which an OAuth2 token has been retrieved using the Authentication mechanisms described in the 'Afsprakenstelsel'. This token must be passed in each call in the HTTP header named “Authorization”. Each XIS Gateway is required to perform filtering based on the patient associated with the OAuth2 token received for the request, so that only the records associated with the authenticated patient are returned. Therefore, no search parameters should be passed for patient identification.
|Bijlage 1 Richtlijn Online inzage in het H-EPD door patiënt|
|#||GP Patient Data Section||HCIM EN||Content||Example search URL|
|1||General Practitioner/Practice||HealthProfessional v3.1 (2017)
HealthcareProvider v3.1 (2017)
|The GP or GP practice that originates the patient data.||TODO. Check assumption here that a patient requests the data from his regular GP. If he were to request it from any other GP/practice he might have visited, then the Patient.generalPractitioner does not apply.|
|2||Patient||Patient v3.1 (2017)||De patient data of the patient the data is for. Note that retrieving patient data separately may not be supported by GP systems in some circumstances. Patient data will however be part of the other responses in that case.|
|3||Episodes||A health concern like a complaint of illness, that may change in nature as diagnoses are made and/or the illness develops.|
|4||Episodes with alert flag||Episodes may have an associated alert signaling extra attention to the episode is requested. The alert flag may stay active even if after closing the episode, if the user deems it important to stay aware.|
|5||Open and closed episodes||Episodes may be open (currently active) or closed (no longer active).|
|6||Treatment||Procedure on the patient targeting the patients health situation. E.g. operative and (severe) procedures like radiation or chemotherapy.||TODO: No HCIM. GP systems do not yet export this info.|
|7||Prophylaxis en precaution||Prophylaxis and precaution contain precautionary measures required for or to prevent certain medical conditions. See NHG Tabel 56||TODO: No HCIM. GP systems do not yet export this info. Unclear if it'll be anything beyond the Table 56 code (id, time, author, text?)|
|8||Current medication||MedicationAgreement v1.0 (2017)||MedicationAgreement
The prescriber proposed use of medication that the patient agrees with. The agreement may signal starting, repeating, updating or stopping the medication. The list of MedicationAgreements is also known as the list of medication the patient is currently using. Note that current means that the period of use is still active. This is conveyed in the MedicationRequest.extension periodOfUse. This may or may not me populated. If it is not, the Medicationagreement is assumed to be current. The search parameter http://nictiz.nl/fhir/SearchParameter/Medications-periodofuse allows filtering for current medicationagreements
|9||Medication intolerance||AllergyIntolerance v3.1 (2017)||A medication intolerance concerns the intolerance of a patient for a specific drug, substance or substance group, that needs to be taken into account when prescribing, dispensing or administering medication.|
|10||Correspondence||Incoming: an incoming letter about a patient, recorded as such in the patients medical record.
Outbound: a letter created by a healthcare professional for a third party healthcare professional.
|TODO: No HCIM. GP systems do not yet export this info.|
|11||Lab results||LaboratoryTestResult v4.0 (2017)||A lab test is an objectifiable diagnostic procedure. The result is the outcome of the procedure. Lab tests include vital signs like blood pressure, weight and lab results like ferro in blood.
Note that GP (lab) results are normally coded using NHG Tabel 45. While some of these codes might be convertible to LOINC or SNOMED CT, this is not expected at present. Bridging code systems between primary and secondary care is part of a larger national discussion
Note that the date parameter is optional and needs calculation, e.g. current-date() - 14 months. The business rules in the guide lines determine the maximum range for the returned results. If the date parameter is omitted, the maximum range is assumed
|BloodPressure v3.1 (2017)|
|BodyHeight v3.1 (2017)|
|BodyTemperature v3.1 (2017)|
|BodyWeight v3.1 (2017)|
|GeneralMeasurement v3.0 (2017)|
|HeartRate v3.1 (2017)|
|12||E- and P-journal entries of the SOAP (EN) or SOEP (NL) structure - recorded after introduction of online access||Information from an encounter, recorded in free text using the SOAP structure. The acronym SOAP stands for Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan. The E entry contains the consultation conclusion and the P entry contains potential next steps.
Note that the profile for SOAP entries is yet to be created and the code system value is preliminary
|TODO: LOINC code has status proposal|
4.2 Server - XIS
4.2.1 Response to resource requests
If the search succeeds, the server SHALL return a 200 OK HTTP status code and the return content SHALL be a Bundle with type = searchset containing the results of the search as a collection of zero or more resources in a defined order. The returned content should conform to the StructureDefinition applicable for the specific HCIM request. The list of a StructureDefinitions relevant for this use case is shown in the following paragraph: List of StructureDefinitions
The result collection can be long, so servers may use paging. If they do, they SHALL use the method described below (adapted from RFC 5005 (Feed Paging and Archiving ) for breaking the collection into pages if appropriate. The server MAY also return an OperationOutcome resource within the searchset Bundle entries that contains additional information about the search; if one is sent it SHALL NOT include any issues with a fatal or error severity, and it SHALL be marked with a Bundle.entry.search.mode of outcome.
In order to allow the client to be confident about what search parameters were used as criteria by the server, the server SHALL return the parameters that were actually used to process the search. Applications processing search results SHALL check these returned values where necessary. For example, if the server did not support some of the filters specified in the search, a client might manually apply those filters to the retrieved result set, display a warning message to the user or take some other action.
In the case of a RESTful search, these parameters are encoded in the self link in the bundle that is returned:
<link> <relation value="self"/> <url value="http://example.org/Patient?identifier=[Patient-ID]/> </link>
Link to the relevant FHIR specification: http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/http.html#search
4.2.2 Handling errors
If the search fails (cannot be executed, not that there are no matches), the return value is a status code 4xx or 5xx with an OperationOutcome. An HTTP status code of 403 signifies that the server refused to perform the search, while other 4xx and 5xx codes signify that some sort of error has occurred. The HTTP status code 404 is returned if a XIS did not implement an endpoint used in a request by a PHR. When the search fails, a server SHOULD return an OperationOutcome detailing the cause of the failure. For example, in case of a not implemented FHIR endpoint, the OperationOutcome would state that the resource type is not supported. Note: an empty search result is not a failure.
Common HTTP Status codes returned on FHIR-related errors (in addition to normal HTTP errors related to security, header and content type negotiation issues):
- 400 Bad Request - search could not be processed or failed basic FHIR validation rules
- 401 Not Authorized - authorization is required for the interaction that was attempted
- 404 Not Found - resource type not supported, or not a FHIR end-point
In some cases, parameters may cause an error. For instance:
- A parameter may refer to a non-existent resource e.g.
GET [base]/Observation?subject=101, where "101" does not exist
- A parameter may refer to an unknown code e.g.
GET [base]/Observation?code=loinc|1234-1, where the LOINC code "1234-1" is not known to the server
- A parameter may refer to a time that is out of scope e.g.
GET [base]/Condition?onset=le1995, where the system only has data going back to 2001
- A parameter may use an illegal or unacceptable modifier e.g.
GET [base]/Condition?onset:text=1995, where the modifier cannot be processed by the server
- A date time parameter may have incorrect format e.g.
- A parameter may be unknown or unsupported
Where the content of the parameter is syntactically incorrect, servers SHOULD return an error. However, where the issue is a logical condition (e.g. unknown subject or code), the server SHOULD process the search, including processing the parameter - with the result of returning an empty search set, since the parameter cannot be satisfied.
In such cases, the search process MAY include an OperationOutcome in the search set that contains additional hints and warnings about the search process. This is included in the search results as an entry with search mode = outcome. Clients can use this information to improve future searches.
Link to relevant FHIR specification: http://hl7.org/fhir/STU3/search.html#errors
5 Interactions, operations, search parameters
The following logical interactions are needed for the GP Patient Data use case:
There are no operations required to support this use case
5.3 Search parameters
The following search parameter types and search result parameters need to be supported for this use case.
Search parameter types:
Search result parameters:
* This SearchParameter searches on the FHIR DataType Period in the PeriodOfUse extension, which is added to profiles on MedicationRequest and MedicationDispense resources. Clients use date parameter searches as described by the FHIR specification. Servers are expected to take the MedicationUse-Duration extension into account when processing a client's search. This means that either a Period.start + Period.end or Period.start + Duration is used to determine the search results. To illustrate the expected behavior: if a Period.start and a Duration is known, but not the Period, the Duration should be added to the Period.start date to calculate the Period.end. The calculated Period.end date is then used to determine the search results.
6 List of StructureDefinitions
The profiles represent their entire respective HCIM, to make them applicable in a broader context than the exchange of GP Patient Data or a MedMij context. An example for reuse of existing profiles are those of the patient administration resources and vital signs.
|MedMij uses the FHIR Packaging mechanism. This conveniently bundles all examples, profiles and other conformance resources you need into a single download. For more background information see the the FHIR implementation guide. This version of the information standard depends on Nictiz package 1.3.x. Please note that the direct links to the various conformance resources below will take you to the latest version, which might not match the package version. At time of writing, there is no way to render the conformance resource as found in the package. This is on the roadmap for Simplifier.|
|Bijlage 1 Richtlijn Online inzage in het H-EPD door patiënt|
|Section||Zib NL||HCIM EN||FHIR Resource||URL Profile|
|11||LaboratoriumUitslag||LaboratoryTestResult||Observation||http://nictiz.nl/fhir/StructureDefinition/gp-DiagnosticResult (NHG Table 45 codes of type D)|
http://nictiz.nl/fhir/StructureDefinition/gp-LaboratoryResult (NHG Table 45 codes of type L)
|12||E and P entry from SOAP/SOEP||Composition
Example instances of FHIR resources can be found on Simplifier. Please note: every effort has been made to ensure that the examples are correct and useful, but they are not a normative part of any information standard.
7 Terminology, NamingSystems, Mappings
Relevant value sets can be found here. All resources can be downloaded in a .zip in XML or JSON format. In the .zip, the value sets are stored in the directory 'value sets'.
Relevant NamingSystems can be found here.
A FHIR ConceptMap resource is provided when a FHIR value set is used instead of a HCIM value set. A ConceptMap maps the values between the two value sets. These ConceptMaps can be found here.
An explanation about mappings can be found at Mapping of coded concepts.
8 Release notes
Release notes can be found on the functional design page.